Vietnam

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Program Officer, Winroông xã International Institute for Agricultural Development, Hanoi, Vietnam giới. Senior Associate, Indochina Institute, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. tác giả of Understanding...
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Behold Vietnam"s spectacular sites lượt thích Nha Trang, Ho Chi Minch City, Hue, Ha Long Bay, Hanoi, và Hoi An
Time-lapse đoạn Clip of various Vietnamese sites, including Ho Chi Minc City, Hue, Ha Long Bay, Nha Trang, & Hanoi.

Vietphái nam has a long history of affiliating with a dominant civilization and adapting that civilization’s ideas, institutions, & công nghệ to Vietnamese purposes. This pattern of affiliating & adapting was already evident in Vietnam’s historical relations with Trung Quốc, và it reappeared as descendants of mandarins responded lớn the challenge of the West by rejecting tradition và becoming communists to lớn combat colonialism. The pattern was evident again as it animated 20th-century artistic movements that employed Western forms to lớn promote social renovation; và since the 1980s it has been the driving force behind the Vietphái nam Communist Party’s embrace of economic liberalization và integration inlớn the world economy. Such strategic absorption and adaptation have helped propel Vietnam giới lớn become one of the world’s most populous countries, with one of the most rapidly expanding market economies.

The capital, Hanoi, is located in the north, while the country’s largest thành phố, Ho Chi Minch City (formerly Saigon), is in the south. Vietnam experienced a period of prolonged warfare in the mid-20th century, và a partitioning (1954–75), first militarily và later politically, inlớn the Democratic Republic of Vietnam giới, better known as North Vietphái mạnh, & the Republic of Vietphái nam, usually called South Vietphái nam. Following reunification in April 1975, the Sociacác mục Republic of Vietphái mạnh was established in July 1976.


Land

With an area & configuration similar lớn those of Norway, Vietphái mạnh extends about 1,025 miles (1,650 km) from north to south và is about 30 miles (50 km) wide east to west at its narrowest part. It is bordered by China lớn the north, the South Đài Loan Trung Quốc Sea lớn the east & south, the Gulf of Thailand (Gulf of Siam) to the southwest, and Cambodia & Laos to the west.

Relief

Vietnam’s principal physiographic features are the Annamese Cordillera (French: Chaîne Annamitique; Vietnamese: Nui Truong Son), extending generally from northwest khổng lồ southeast in central Vietphái nam và dominating the interior, & two extensive alluvial deltas formed by the Red (Hong) River in the north & the Mekong (Cuu Long) River in the south. Between these two deltas is a long, relatively narrow coastal plain.


From north to lớn south the uplands of northern Vietphái mạnh can be divided into two distinct regions—the area north of the Red River và the massif that extends south of the Red River into lớn neighbouring Laos. The Red River forms a deep, relatively wide valley that runs in a straight northwest-southeast direction for much of its course from the Chinese border lớn the edge of its delta. North of the Red River the relief is moderate, with the highest elevations occurring between the Red and Lo (Clear) rivers; there is a marked depression from Cao Bang to lớn the sea. In the Red River delta và in the valleys of the region’s other major rivers are found wide limestone terraces, extensive sầu alluvial plains, and low hills. The northeast coast is dotted with hundreds of islands composed mostly of limestone.

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Compared with the area north of the Red River, the vast massif extending southwest across Laos to the Mekong River is of considerably higher elevation. Aao ước its outstanding topographic features is Fan Si Peak, which at 10,312 feet (3,143 metres) is the highest point in Vietnam. South of the Blaông chồng (Da) River are the Ta P’ing, Son La, and Moc Chau plateaus, which are separated by deep valleys.

In central Vietphái mạnh the Annamese Cordillera runs parallel khổng lồ the coast, with several peaks rising khổng lồ elevations above 6,000 feet (1,800 metres). Several spurs jut into the South Trung Quốc Sea, forming sections of the coast isolated from one another. Communication across the central ranges is difficult. The southern portion of the Annamese Cordillera has two identifiable regions. One consists of plateaus of approximately 1,700 feet (5trăng tròn metres) in elevation that have experienced little erosion, as in the Dac Lac Plateau near Buon Me Thuot. The second region is characterized by heavily eroded plateaus: in the vicinity of Pleiku, the Kontum Plateau is about 2,500 feet (760 metres) above sea level; & in the Da Lat area, the Di Linch Plateau is about 4,900 feet (1,500 metres).

Drainage

Roughly triangular in shape, with its northeast và southwest sides bounded by the northern uplands, the Red River delta extends inland some 150 miles (240 km) & runs some 75 miles (1trăng tròn km) along the Gulf of Tonkin. The delta can be divided inkhổng lồ four subregions. The northwestern section has the highest và most broken terrain, và its extensive natural levees invite settlement despite frequent flooding. The low-lying eastern portion is less than seven feet (two metres) above sầu sea màn chơi in the vicinity of Bac Ninh. Rivers there size small valleys only slightly lower than the general surface màn chơi, và they are subject to lớn flooding by the area’s unusually high tides. The third and fourth subregions consist, respectively, of the poorly drained lowlands in the west và the coastal area, which is marked by the remains of former beach ridges left as the delta expanded.


Mekong River
Mekong River delta, southern Vietnam giới.
M. Gifford/De Wys Inc.

The Annamese Cordillera forms a drainage divide, with rivers to the east flowing to the South China Sea & those to lớn the west to lớn the Mekong River. South of the mountain range there is an identifiable terrace region that gives way to the Mekong delta. The terrace region includes the alluvial plains along the Saigon & Dong Nai rivers. The lowlands of southern Vietnam are dominated by alluvial plains, the most extensive sầu of which is the Mekong delta, covering an area of 15,400 square miles (39,900 square km) in Vietnam giới. Smaller deltaic plains also occur along the south-central coast facing the South Đài Loan Trung Quốc Sea.

Soils

In northern Vietnam the heavy monsoonal rains wash away rich humus from the highlands, leaving slow-dissolving alumimãng cầu & iron oxides that give sầu the soil its characteristic reddish colour. The soils of the Red River delta vary: some are fertile & suitable for intense cultivation, while others lachồng soluble bases. Nonetheless, the delta soils are easily worked. The diking of the Red River to prevent flooding has deprived the delta’s rice fields of enriching silts they once received, và it has been necessary lớn apply chemical fertilizers.

There are some two dozen soil associations, but certain soil types predominate. Aý muốn these are red & yellow podzolic soils (i.e., soils that are heavily leached in their upper layers, with a resulting accumulation of materials in the lower layers), which occupy nearly half of the lvà area, and lateritic soils (reddish brown, leached tropical soils), which constitute another one-tenth more. These soil types dominate the central highlands.

Alluvial soils trương mục for about one-fourth of the lvà in the south and are concentrated in the Mekong delta, as are peat & muông xã soils. Gray podzolic soils are found in parts of the central highlands & in old terraces along the Mekong, while regurs (rich blachồng loams) & lateritic soils occur in both the central highlands & the terrace zone. Along the coast of central Vietnam giới are regosols (soft, undeveloped soils) and noncalcic brown soils.

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Vietnam
flag of Vietnam
National anthem of Vietnam
Official nameCong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam (Sociadanh mục Republic of Vietnam)Form of governmentsociacác mục republic with one legislative house (National Assembly <500>)Head of statePresident: Nguyen Xuan PhucHead of governmentPrime Minister: Pđắm đuối Minh ChinhCapitalHanoiOfficial languageVietnameseOfficial religionnoneMonetary unitdong (VND)Population(20đôi mươi est.) 97,591,000Population rank(2019) 16Population projection 2030103,196,000Total area (sq mi)127,889Total area (sq km)331,231Density: persons per sq mi(2018) 740.4Density: persons per sq km(2018) 285.9Urban-rural populationUrban: (2018) 35%Rural: (2018) 65%Life expectancy at birthMale: (2017) 70.9 yearsFemale: (2017) 76.2 yearsLiteracy: percentage of population age 15 và over literateMale: %Female: 0%GNI (U.S.$ ’000,000)(2017) 206,900GNI per capita (U.S.$)(2017) 2,160
did you know?The name of Vietnam was once spelled as two words (Viet Nam, coming from the Vietnamese for "southern Viet people"), but is now generally spelled as a single word. Vietnam giới, although still a developing country, is progressing quickly with the goal of being a developed economy by 20trăng tròn. It has one of the lowest unemployment rates in the developing world. Motorcycles have sầu become so profilic in Vietnam giới that riders may be fined if caught by the police without a safety helmet. Vietphái mạnh, officially the Sociacác mục Republic of Vietnam giới, is one of just five communist countries still in existence. The other four are Trung Quốc, Cutía, Laos, and North Korea. In the United States, the war fought in Vietphái mạnh from 1954 to 1975 is known as the Vietnam giới War. In Vietnam giới, it is known as the American War.

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